During this talk, Peter continues the discussion begun in the last meeting on the Second Noble Truth. Again it was emphasized that there are three levels of approach to the Four Noble Truths: to be understood conceptually, to be noted upon emerging into awareness, and for the first two to be mastered. This talk explored the concepts associated with clinging, particularly from a neuropsychological perspective. The value of this approach is to demonstrate the impersonality of the various neural networks involved as initial sensory input is processed through association to prior experience. This is another way to look at the Buddhist concept of karma and the resultant effects, known as vipaka.During the next talk Peter will present in a few weeks, we will discuss the Third Noble Truth as a progression from personality integration (the mastery of virtue) to spiritual attainment (the mastery of wisdom).