During this dialogue, Peter first described the classical way of understanding the hindrance of aversion and ill-will. He then provided a review of current neurobiological understanding of how various brain structures process incoming stimuli to assess for either threat or reward. During this phase, he explained the close association between the avoidance of unpleasant feeling and the onset of addictive behaviors. This was linked to the emphasis placed on serenity in the various 12-step organizations, particularly the 11th step regarding daily meditation and prayer. This was followed by a clarifying dialogue among the sangha members about this process. Next week’s talk will explore more directly how we can notice the arising of aversion , the nature of arisen aversion, how to dissolve aversion and how to avoid the future arising of aversion.