During this talk, Peter described dukkha as distress and confusion rather than the traditional term suffering, as he believes the alternate terms are more specifically targeted on craving (distress) and clinging (confusion), the causes of dukkha. The development of aiming and sustaining attention on breath awareness is the primary skill to be cultivated in this effort. He described the Five Hindrances in their characteristics, function and antidotes, with mindfulness of breathing leading the way. The result from setting aside the hindrances is the experience of Samma Samadhi, Right Concentration, an element of the Noble Eightfold Path. This was followed by a question and answer period to address the day’s experience and the topic of this talk.
Here are the notes prepared for this talk: THE-OUT-OF-BALANCE-MIND
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During this talk, the Upaddha Sutta, Half (Of The Holy Life), was quoted, (translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu). In the sutta, the Buddha tells Ananda, his personal attendant, that relationship is a core aspect of the practice of the Four Noble Truths. Peter related this observation to current research which demonstrates that mindfulness of breathing meditation builds strength into the neural pathways associated with secure relationship bonds. The actual practice of attending to the breath, checking divergent thoughts and regulating emotional reactivity was explained. Daniel Goleman’s book “Social Intelligence” was also quoted to support this approach to relationship security. This was followed by discussion of the topic.
Here are the notes prepared for this talk: MINDFULNESS AND RELATIONSHIPS
Next week’s topic will be “What Is The Self?”, which will explore what we call “ego” from a contemporary perspective.
During this talk, the topic of “process addiction” was reviewed, qualifying addiction with 5 criteria: 1) often activated or contemplated, 2) increases in frequency and intensity over time, 3) becomes a lifestyle organizing function, 4) acted upon and defended despite the negative consequences, and 5) discomfort and confusion occurs when access is denied or prevented. This process can apply to many actions that could also be benign or even healthy, with criteria 4 being the determining factor.
This was related to the first and second Noble Truths, that is distress and the craving and clinging that causes distress. Addictive behaviors were characterized as maladaptive ways to cope with distress that don’t address the underlying patterns of feeling, thinking and behavior that Buddhist practices and principles address. The serenity and clarity that emerges from dedicated mindfulness of breathing and lovingkindness practices was compared to the 11th step of the 12 steps of Alcoholics Anonymous, which is daily meditation and prayer for conscious contact with a higher power.
Peter referred to an article in The Lion’s Roar magazine (formerly Shambala Sun), written by Noah Levine, about attempts to create a parallel system to the 12 steps for those folks inclined towards Buddhist practice. The article is entitled “A Refuge From Addiction”. Here is the article posted on this site: A Refuge from Addiction
Here are the notes prepared for this talk: MINDFULNESS AND ADDICTIONS
Next week’s topic will be Mindfulness And Relationships
This talk continues the exploration of what Peter terms “self-state conflict”, with discussion of the characteristic symptoms of depression in the context of Buddhist concepts and practices. One of the primary causes of depression is what is called “intrusive negative rumination”; from the Buddhist perspective, this is understood as the manifestation of craving and clinging to a self-organization that is dysfunctional. Peter mentioned that this consumer culture creates “needs” that were unheard of in the Buddhist world until the 20th century, and that one cause of depression for this era is misconceiving a marketing generated ideal self as real and important. The application of mindfulness of breathing, noting distracting thoughts and impulses and refusing to feed them with attention will diminish the conditions that produce depression. These insights were related to Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, which modern research suggests can prevent relapse back into depression, provided that the meditation practice is maintained on a daily basis.
Here are the notes prepared for this talk: MINDFULNESS AND DEPRESSION
Next week’s talk will continue to explore “self-state conflicts”, focused on the prevalence of substance and process addictions in this culture.
Last week’s discussion was organized around how stressful contemporary life is, compared to the largely agrarian cultures that characterized the earliest centuries of what is now called Buddhism. The results of culturally induced stress in this consumeristic era were emphasized. This week’s topic was the prevalence of anxiety (18% of Americans were diagnotically anxious in 2007, the latest data found on the internet while preparing this talk; this was before the economic stress of 2008 and beyond!). Peter described the Buddhist perspective on anxiety, again related to the first and second noble truths, that is, stress and how craving and clinging bring about stress. This was followed by quotes from a recent peer reviewed research article, “Neural Correlates Of Mindfulness Meditation-Related Anxiety Relief”, published in 2013, which correlated the difference between “state” and “trait” anxiety and the neurological processes that occur.
Suggestions were offered regarding how the regular practice of mindfulness of breathing meditation can reduce the frequency, intensity and duration of anxiety. Peter also described the varieties of clinical anxiety, which are reviewed in this document: ANXIETY FROM A BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVE
Next week’s discussion will focus on depression from a Buddhist perspective.